Age periods of development of children of preschool age of a Foetus in the Womb detail. Early childhood is a stage in human development. It generally includes toddlerhood and some time afterwards. Play age is an unspecific designation approximately within the scope of early childhood.
In psychology the term early childhood is usually defined as the time period birth until the age of nine to twelve years, therefore covering infancy, kindergarten and the early school years up to grades 3,4,5 or 6. In this phase there is significant synaptic growth and myelination of neural fibers in the brain, especially within the frontal lobes. The growth of the brain is followed by a surge in cognitive abilities. Around the age of five, children start speaking properly and master their hand to eye coordination. It is optimal that an environment is provided that encourages physical development and allows the children to explore and try out new things. The physical development in children follows a pattern.
The large muscles develop before the small muscles. The large muscles are used for walking, running and other physical activities. These are known as gross motor skills. Small muscles are used for fine motor skills such as picking up objects, writing, drawing, throwing and catching. Called the preoperational stage by Jean Piaget, this is the stage during which the child repeatedly asks “Why? The child can’t yet perform the abstract thinking operations. This includes children understanding a sense of ‘self’, relationships with others and sociability.
The emotional development includes expressions, attachment and personality. Children manifest fear of dark and monsters and around the age of three notice whether they are a boy or a girl and start acting that way. Boys are usually more aggressive, whilst girls are more caring. Between ages 2 and 3 years, young children stop using the awkward, wide-legged robot-like stance that is the hallmark of new walkers.
As they develop a smoother gait, they also develop the ability to run, jump, and hop. Children of this age can participate in throwing and catching games with larger balls. They can also push themselves around with their feet while sitting on a riding toy. There are several developmental expectations for children to reach by the time they reach the age of 2. Children are expected to be able to draw simple shapes such as circles, squares and triangles.