Please forward this error diagnostics of psychological readiness of the child to school methods to 67. Psychological testing refers to the administration of psychological tests.
A psychological test is “an objective and standardized measure of a sample of behavior”. The term sample of behavior refers to an individual’s performance on tasks that have usually been prescribed beforehand. A psychological test is an instrument designed to measure unobserved constructs, also known as latent variables. Psychological tests are typically, but not necessarily, a series of tasks or problems that the respondent has to solve. It is important that people who are equal on the measured construct also have an equal probability of answering the test items correctly. Psychological assessment is similar to psychological testing but usually involves a more comprehensive assessment of the individual.
A Song Dynasty painting of candidates participating in the imperial examination, a rudimentary form of psychological testing. Physiognomy was used to assess personality traits based on an individual’s outer appearance. The first large-scale tests may have been examinations that were part of the imperial examination system in China. The test, an early form of psychological testing, assessed candidates based on their proficiency in topics such as civil law and fiscal policies. Englishman Francis Galton coined the terms psychometrics and eugenics, and developed a method for measuring intelligence based on nonverbal sensory-motor tests.
It was initially popular, but was abandoned after the discovery that it had no relationship to outcomes such as college grades. The origins of personality testing date back to the 18th and 19th centuries, when personality was assessed through phrenology, the measurement of the human skull, and physiognomy, which assessed personality based on a person’s outer appearances. Proper psychological testing is conducted after vigorous research and development in contrast to quick web-based or magazine questionnaires that say “Find out your Personality Color,” or “What’s your Inner Age? Standardization – All procedures and steps must be conducted with consistency and under the same environment to achieve the same testing performance from those being tested. Objectivity – Scoring such that subjective judgments and biases are minimized, with results for each test taker obtained in the same way.
Test Norms – The average test score within a large group of people where the performance of one individual can be compared to the results of others by establishing a point of comparison or frame of reference. Reliability – Obtaining the same result after multiple testing. Validity – The type of test being administered must measure what it is intended to measure. Psychological tests, like many measurements of human characteristics, can be interpreted in a norm-referenced or criterion-referenced manner.
Norms are statistical representations of a population. A norm-referenced score interpretation compares an individual’s results on the test with the statistical representation of the population. A criterion-referenced interpretation of a test score compares an individual’s performance to some criterion other than performance of other individuals. IQ tests purport to be measures of intelligence, while achievement tests are measures of the use and level of development of use of the ability. Industrial and Organizational Psychology tests for initial employment and advancement throughout the ranks. Attitude test assess an individual’s feelings about an event, person, or object. Typically attitude tests use either a Thurstone scale, or Likert Scale to measure specific items.
These tests consist of specifically designed tasks used to measure a psychological function known to be linked to a particular brain structure or pathway. Neuropsychological tests can be used in a clinical context to assess impairment after an injury or illness known to affect neurocognitive functioning. Due to the fact that infants and preschool aged children have limited capacities of communication, psychologists are unable to use traditional tests to assess them. Therefore, many tests have been designed just for children ages birth to around six years of age. These tests usually vary with age respectively from assessments of reflexes and developmental milestones, to sensory and motor skills, language skills, and simple cognitive skills. Common tests for this age group are split into categories: Infant Ability, Preschool Intelligence, and School Readiness.