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This article needs additional citations for verification. Developmental disability is a diverse group of chronic conditions that are due to mental or physical impairments. Developmental disabilities cause individuals living with them many difficulties in certain areas of life, especially in “language, mobility, learning, self-help, and independent living”. Down syndrome is a condition in which people are born with an extra copy of chromosome 21. Normally, a person is born with two copies of chromosome 21. However, if they are born with Down syndrome, they have an extra copy of this chromosome.
This extra copy affects the development of the body and brain, causing physical and mental challenges for the individual. CP is the most common motor disability in childhood. IQ below 70 along with limitations in adaptive functioning and onset before the age of 18 years. The causes of developmental disabilities are varied and remain unknown in a large proportion of cases. Even in cases of known etiology the line between “cause” and “effect” is not always clear, leading to difficulty in categorizing causes.
Genetic factors have long been implicated in the causation of developmental disabilities. There is also a large environmental component to these conditions, and the relative contributions of nature versus nurture have been debated for decades. Current theories on causation focus on genetic factors, and over 1,000 known genetic conditions include developmental disabilities as a symptom. The worldwide proportion of people with developmental disabilities is believed to be approximately 1. Developmental disabilities can be initially suspected when a child does not reach expected child development stages. The degree of disability can be quantified by assigning a developmental age to a person, which is age of the group into which test scores place the person.
There are many physical health factors associated with developmental disabilities. For some specific syndromes and diagnoses, these are inherent, such as poor heart function in people with Down syndrome. Mental health issues, and psychiatric illnesses, are more likely to occur in people with developmental disabilities than in the general population. External monitoring factor: all people with developmental disabilities that are in a federal- or state-funded residence require the residence to have some form of behavioral monitoring for each person with developmental disability at the residence. With this information psychological diagnoses are more easily given than with the general population that has less consistent monitoring. Access to health care providers: in the United States, all people with developmental disabilities that are in a federal- or state-funded residence require the residence to have annual visits to various health care providers.
With consistent visits to health care providers more people with developmental disabilities are likely to receive appropriate treatment than the general population that is not required to visit various health care providers. These problems are exacerbated by difficulties in diagnosis of mental health issues, and in appropriate treatment and medication, as for physical health issues. Abuse is a significant issue for people with developmental disabilities, and as a group they are regarded as vulnerable people in most jurisdictions. Sexual abuse is associated with psychological disturbance. Hollins found that sexual abuse was associated with increased rates of mental illness and behavioural problems, including symptoms of post-traumatic stress.
Psychological reactions to abuse were similar to those observed in the general population, but with the addition of stereotypical behaviour. Lack of education, lack of self-esteem and self-advocacy skills, lack of understanding of social norms and appropriate behavior and communication difficulties are strong contributing factors to the high incidence of abuse among this population. In addition to abuse from people in positions of power, peer abuse is recognized as a significant, if misunderstood, problem. Rates of criminal offense among people with developmental disabilities are also disproportionately high, and it is widely acknowledged that criminal justice systems throughout the world are ill-equipped for the needs of people with developmental disabilities—as both perpetrators and victims of crime. Experience and research suggests that what professionals call “challenging behavior” is often a reaction to the challenging environments that those providing services create around people with developmental disabilities. In general, behavioral interventions or what has been termed applied behavior analysis has been found to be effective in reducing specific challenging behavior.
Recently, efforts have been placed on developing a developmental pathway model in the behavior analysis literature to prevent challenging behavior from occurring. Throughout history, people with developmental disabilities have been viewed as incapable and incompetent in their capacity for decision-making and development. Early in the twentieth century, the eugenics movement became popular throughout the world. The movement towards individualism in the 18th and 19th centuries, and the opportunities afforded by the Industrial Revolution, led to housing and care using the asylum model. Ignoring the prevailing attitude, Civitans adopted service to the developmentally disabled as a major organizational emphasis in 1952. Their earliest efforts included workshops for special education teachers and daycamps for disabled children, all at a time when such training and programs were almost nonexistent. The publication of this book may be regarded as the first move towards the widespread adoption of the social model of disability in regard to these types of disabilities, and was the impetus for the development of government strategies for desegregation.
From the 1960s to the present, most U. Along with the work of Wolfensberger and others including Gunnar and Rosemary Dybwad, a number of scandalous revelations around the horrific conditions within state institutions created public outrage that led to change to a more community-based method of providing services. Individuals with developmental disabilities are not fully integrated into society. Person Centered Planning and Person Centered Approaches are seen as methods of addressing the continued labeling and exclusion of socially devalued people, such as people with a developmental disability label, encouraging a focus on the person as someone with capacities and gifts, as well as support needs. Today, support services are provided by government agencies, non-governmental organizations and by private sector providers.