Learners converse about personal experiences with partners, and instructors teach topics outside of the realm of traditional grammar, in order to promote language skills in all types of situations. This method also claims to encourage learners to incorporate their personal experiences into their language learning environment, and to focus on the learning experience in addition to the learning of the methods of teaching reading children 5 6 years language. According to CLT, the goal of language education is the ability to communicate in the target language.
This is in contrast to previous views in which grammatical competence was commonly given top priority. Language teaching was originally considered a cognitive matter, mainly involving memorization. It was later thought, instead, to be socio-cognitive, meaning that language can be learned through the process of social interaction. It was Noam Chomsky’s theories in the 1960s, focusing on competence and performance in language learning, that gave rise to communicative language teaching, but the conceptual basis for CLT was laid in the 1970s by linguists Michael Halliday, who studied how language functions are expressed through grammar, and Dell Hymes, who introduced the idea of a wider communicative competence instead of Chomsky’s narrower linguistic competence. This increased demand included many learners who struggled with traditional methods such as grammar translation, which involves the direct translation of sentence after sentence as a way to learn language. These methods assumed that students were aiming for mastery of the target language, and that students were willing to study for years before expecting to use the language in real life. Additionally, the trend of progressivism in education provided further pressure for educators to change their methods.
The development of communicative language teaching was bolstered by new academic ideas. Before the growth of communicative language teaching, the primary method of language teaching was situational language teaching. This method was much more clinical in nature and relied less on direct communication. In Britain, applied linguists began to doubt the efficacy of situational language teaching. This was partly in response to Chomsky’s insights into the nature of language.
In 1966, linguist and anthropologist Dell Hymes developed the concept of communicative competence. An influential development in the history of communicative language teaching was the work of the Council of Europe in creating new language syllabi. When communicative language teaching had effectively replaced situational language teaching as the standard by leading linguists, the Council of Europe made an effort to once again bolster the growth of the new method. In the mid 1990s, the Dogme 95 manifesto influenced language teaching through the Dogme language teaching movement.
This proposed that published materials stifle the communicative approach. As such, the aim of the Dogme approach to language teaching is to focus on real conversations about practical subjects, where communication is the engine of learning. Oral activities are popular among CLT teachers, as opposed to grammar drills or reading and writing activities, because they include active conversation and creative, unpredicted responses from students. Activities vary based on the level of language class they are being used in.
Role-play is an oral activity usually done in pairs, whose main goal is to develop students’ communicative abilities in a certain setting. The instructor sets the scene: where is the conversation taking place? The instructor defines the goal of the students’ conversation. The students converse in pairs for a designated amount of time. This activity gives students the chance to improve their communication skills in the TL in a low-pressure situation.
Most students are more comfortable speaking in pairs rather than in front of the entire class. Instructors need to be aware of the differences between a conversation and an utterance. Students may use the same utterances repeatedly when doing this activity and not actually have a creative conversation. If instructors do not regulate what kinds of conversations students are having, then the students might not be truly improving their communication skills. An interview is an oral activity done in pairs, whose main goal is to develop students’ interpersonal skills in the TL.