Please forward this error screen to 185. See also: Cultivating pedagogical training of children and possibility? The impetus has come from different directions.
As we will see, viewing pedagogy in this way both fails to honour the historical experience, and to connect crucial areas of theory and practice. The nature of education Our starting point here is with the nature of education. Unfortunately, it is easy to confuse education with schooling. Many think of places like schools or colleges when seeing or hearing the word. They might also look to particular jobs like teacher or tutor. The problem with this is that while looking to help people learn, the way a lot of teachers work isn’t necessarily something we can properly call education.
It can quickly descend into treating learners like objects, things to be acted upon rather than people to be related to. For many concerned with education, it is also a matter of grace and wholeness, wherein we engage fully with the gifts we have been given. To educate is, in short, to set out to create and sustain informed, hopeful and respectful environments where learning can flourish. It is concerned not just with knowing about things, but also with changing ourselves and the world we live in. This is a process carried out by parents and carers, friends and colleagues, and specialist educators. It is to the emergence of the last of these in ancient Greece that we will now turn as they have become so much a part of the way we think about, and get confused by, the nature of pedagogy. The pedagogue was responsible for every aspect of the child’s upbringing from correcting grammar and diction to controlling his or her sexual morals.
Employing a pedagogue was a custom that went far beyond Greek society. Well-to-do Romans and some Jews placed their children in the care and oversight of trusted slaves. He further reports that brothers sometimes shared one pedagogue in Greek society. The relation of the pedagogue to the child is a fascinating one. Apparently, it was a matter that, according to Plato, did not go unnoticed by Socrates. Yes, he is my tutor here. He was more important than the schoolmaster, because the latter only taught a boy his letters, but the paidagogos taught him how to behave, a much more important matter in the eyes of his parents.
He was, moreover, even if a slave, a member of the household, in touch with its ways and with the father’s authority and views. The schoolmaster had no such close contact with his pupils. However, because both pedagogues and teachers were of relatively low status they were could be disrespected by the boys. The distinction between teachers and pedagogues, instruction and guidance, and education for school or life was a feature of discussions around education for many centuries. Education includes the nurture of the child and, as it grows, its culture.
Guidance means directing the pupil in putting into practice what he has been taught. The growing focus on teaching In Europe concern with the process and content of teaching and instruction developed significantly in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. It was, however, part of a movement that dated from 300-400 years earlier. A growing literature about instruction and method aimed at schoolteachers. The grouping together of different areas of knowledge in syllabi which set out what was to be instructed.
This led in much of continental Europe to a growing interest in the process of teaching and the gathering together of examples, guidance and knowledge in the form of what became known as didactics. He developed sets of rules for teaching and set out basic principles. One should proceed from the specific to the general, from what is easy to the more difficult, from what is known to the unknown. Teaching should not cover too many subjects or themes at the same time.
Teaching should proceed slowly and systematically. Education’ means shaping the development of character with a view to the improvement of man. As he saw it, external influences, such as the punishment or shaming of pupils, were not the most important instruments of education. Simplified and rather rigid versions of his approach grew in influence with the development of mass schooling and state-defined curricula.
This approach did not go unchallenged at the time. Rather than seeking to construct detailed systems of instruction, the need was to explore the human experience of teaching, learning and schooling. However, its influence was to prove limited. Relatively little attention was paid to pedagogy in Britain and north America until the 1970s and early 1980’s. The book became a key reference point on many education programmes in higher education and central to the establishment of explorations around critical pedagogy. Pedagogy as a means of control A fundamental element in the growing interest in pedagogy was a shift in government focus in education in England.
Pedagogy or didactics Unfortunately, the way pedagogy was being defined still looked back to the focus on teaching that Herbart argued for nearly 200 years ago. Pedagogy is the stuff of teachers’ daily lives. UK education debates is better understood as didactics. Yet, in many respects, key aspects of what is talked about today as pedagogy in the UK and north America is better approached via this continental tradition of didactics. A third element in the turn to pedagogy flowed from concerns in social work and youth work in the UK that the needs of many children were not being met by existing forms of practice and provision. If we look to these traditions we are likely to re-appreciate pedagogy. In addition, three elements things out about the processes of the current generation of specialist pedagogues.
First, they are heirs to the ancient Greek process of accompanying. Second, their pedagogy involves a significant amount of helping and caring for. A focus on flourishing The first and obvious thing to say is that pedagogues have a fundamentally different focus to subject teachers. Their central concern is with the well-being of those they are among and with.