Throughout history, the definition, diagnosis, terminology, and etiology of mental teaching children with mental retardation have changed, influencing services, policy, education, and prevalence. Definition and Prevalence of Mental Retardation Mental retardation is a condition of substantial limitations in intellectual functioning that impacts performance in daily life.
Brief History of Education Prior to the 1700s, those with mental retardation suffered greatly. In the 1700s to the late 1800s, they entered an optimistic period when French educational methods spread to other Western countries. These methods derived mainly from Edward Seguin and less so from his predecessor Jean-Marc Itard in the first half of the nineteenth century. In the late 1800s to the 1960s there was widespread building of institutions to house individuals with mental retardation. Starting in the 1970s the institutional population in the United States was gradually reduced, primarily because of a reduction in admissions.
The primary goal of education for this group is to increase self-sufficiency by teaching functional academics and other skills needed in everyday life across home, community, work, and leisure domains. Issues Trends and Controversies Although the label of mental retardation brings services, it also brings stigma and low expectations. 1970s to the 1990s serves as evidence. Parents and educators have grappled with this issue. Some believe the label should be reserved for those with organic etiologies, assuming the smaller group would be more homogeneous.
Current law requires education in the least restrictive environment with appropriate services and support. Students with mental retardation have a poor record for being served in general education classrooms: 46 percent of all students with disabilities are so served compared with 12 percent of those with mental retardation. Many believe that educators need to understand better how to serve these students in the mainstream and also equip them for the transition to adult life. SPECIAL EDUCATION, subentries on CURRENT TRENDS, HISTORY OF. State Institutions: Thirty Years of Depopulation and Closure. Education of All Handicapped Children Act of 1975.
Critical Analysis of the 1992 AAMR Definition: Implications for School Psychology. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997. Mental Retardation: Definition, Classification and Systems of Supports, 9th edition. Washington, DC: American Association on Mental Retardation. Inventing the Feeble Mind: A History of Mental Retardation in the United States.
Twenty-Second Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Washington, DC: Office of Special Education Programs, U. Mental Health Services and Children – Who Receives Mental Health Services? Use of Services, Where Do Children Receive Mental Health Services? Citing this material Please include a link to this page if you have found this material useful for research or writing a related article.
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