This article needs additional citations for verification. ASL morphology the education of children of the grammatical structure of Russian language to a large extent iconic.
This shows up especially well in reduplication and indexicality. Compounding is used to derive new words in ASL, which often differ in meaning from their constituent signs. Many ASL nouns are derived from verbs. Characteristic adjectives, which refer to inherent states, may be derived from adjectives which refer to “incidental or temporary states”. Characteristic adjectives always use both hands, even if the source adjective only uses one, and they always have repeated, circular movement.
ASL occasionally uses suffixation in derivation, but less often than in English. Agent nouns may be derived from verbs by adding the suffix AGENT and deleting the final hold of the verb, e. Superlatives are also formed by suffixation, e. Certain types of signs, for example those relating to time and age, may incorporate numbers by assimilating their handshape. 9 to indicate that many weeks. There are about 20 non-manual modifiers in ASL, which are either adjectival or adverbial. For example, one may sign ‘man tall’ to indicate the man is tall, but by mouthing the syllable cha while signing ‘tall’, the phrase becomes that man is enormous!
There are other ways of modifying a verb or adjective to make it more intense. Certain words which are short in English, such as ‘sad’ and ‘mad’, are sometimes fingerspelled rather than signed to mean ‘very sad’ and ‘very mad’. However, the concept of ‘very sad’ or ‘very mad’ can be portrayed with the use of exaggerated body movements and facial expressions. Generally the motion of the sign is shortened as well as repeated. Nouns may be derived from verbs through reduplication. For example, the noun chair is formed from the verb to sit by repeating it with a reduced degree of motion. Many ASL words are historically compounds.
However, the two elements of these signs have fused, with features being lost from one or both, to create what might be better called a blend than a compound. An example is the verb AGREE, which derives from the two signs THINK and ALIKE. ASL, like other mature signed languages, makes extensive use of morphology. Many of ASL’s affixes are combined simultaneously rather than sequentially. ASL does have a limited number of concatenative affixes. B or 5 hands in front of the torso, palms facing each other, and lowering them.
However, it cannot generally be used to translate English ‘-er’, as it is used with a much more limited set of verbs. The prefix completely assimilates with the initial handshape of the number. For instance, ‘fourteen’ is signed with a B hand that bends several times at the knuckles. The chin-touch prefix in ‘fourteen years old’ is thus also made with a B hand. Rather than relying on sequential affixes, ASL makes heavy use of simultaneous modification of signs. There are several families of two-handed signs which require one of the hands to take the handshape of a numeral. Many of these deal with time.
ASL also has a system of classifiers which may be incorporated into signs. The frequency of classifier use depends greatly on genre, occurring at a rate of 17. They are incomplete sets of the features which make up signs, and they combine with existing signs, absorbing features from them to form a derived sign. It is the frame which specifies the number and nature of segments in the resulting sign, while the basic signs it combines with lose all but one or two of their original features.