Numbers and Numerals This material describes how numbers are expressed by numerals in English and the numbers of words in Russian for children examples of cardinal and ordinal numerals, common and decimal fractions, and examples of differences between British and American English in expressing numbers. Some differences in the representation of numbers in English and Russian are also indicated.
For the purposes of studying, numbers in this material are written in words and figures. Recommendations on the use of figures or words for expressing numbers and examples of the use of numbers in various situations are given in Numbers in Situations in the section Miscellany. Cardinal numerals indicate number, quantity or amount and are used in counting. Ordinal numerals indicate order, that is, the order of things in a series. Numerals function as nouns and adjectives. In a sentence, a numeral can serve as a subject, attribute, object, predicative complement, or adverbial modifier.
Ten students took part in the competition. Twenty cars were sold on the first day. Five of them were sports cars. There are 135 employees in this company. We talked to 45 of them. How many cakes did you buy?
Note: It is interesting to note that the numeral is not a part of speech in English. Words like “three, six, twenty, forty-five, hundred, third, sixth, twentieth, forty-fifth, hundredth” are nouns and adjectives in English. There are eight parts of speech in English: nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections. In some English sources, articles are included in this list as a part of speech. There are ten parts of speech in Russian: nouns, pronouns, adjectives, numerals, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, particles, and interjections. In this material, numbers expressed in words are written without “and” before tens or ones.